Prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility, and virulence factors of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from raw milk in Basrah, Iraq
Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine
A total of one hundred and fifty cow, buffalo, and sheep milk samples were collected from several markets in Basrah, Iraq (50 samples from each species). All milk samples were subjected to enrichment in TSB and cold enrichment in PBS, then cultured on YSA agar in order to obtain Yersinia species. The highest growth obtained by TSB enrichment was seen in cow milk (24%) followed by buffalo milk (22%) and sheep milk (12%). The results of PBS enrichment showed the highest growth in cow milk (14%)
... in cow milk (14%) followed by buffalo (8%) and sheep milk (2%). The results showed that both cow and buffalo milk samples were contaminated by Y. enterocolitica at 8% while the prevalence in sheep milk was 4%. Ten isolates from different sources in the current study were examined for their susceptibility to 10 antibiotics. The highest susceptibility (100%) was found towards streptomycin, azithromycin and gentamicin, followed by ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol, 93.3% for each. Low susceptibility was found toward vancomycin (6.66%) and cloxacillin (33.3%). 16S rRNA sequencing showed homology with previously annotated strains at GenBank of National Centre for Biotechnology (NCBI). Multiple sequence alignments exhibited one difference between the sequences at the locus 764. The phylogenic tree of the results demonstrated that the local isolates were closely related to strains previously reported from China. All Yersinia enterocolitica strains had the inv gene. In contrast, the ail gene was found in one strain (10%) while the yad gene appeared in 50% of the investigated strains.