Fast-rate formation of TiO2nanotube arrays in an organic bath and their applications in photocatalysis
In this work, 18.5 μm titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) nanotube arrays were formed by the anodization of titanium (Ti) foil in ethylene glycol containing 1 wt% water and 5 wt% fluoride for 60 min at 60 V. The fast growth rate of the nanotube arrays at 308 nm min −1 was achieved due to the excess fluoride content and the limited amount of water in ethylene glycol used for anodization. Limited water content and excess fluoride in ethylene glycol inhibited the formation of a thick barrier layer by
... r layer by increasing the dissolution rate at the bottom of the nanotubes. This eased the transport of titanium, fluorine and oxygen ions, and allowed the nanotubes to grow deep into the titanium foil. At the same time, the neutral condition offered a protective environment along the tube wall and pore mouth, which minimized lateral and top dissolution. Results from x-ray photoelectron spectra revealed that the TiO 2 nanotubes prepared in ethylene glycol contained Ti, oxygen (O) and carbon (C) after annealing. The photocatalytic activity of the nanotube arrays produced was evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange. Results indicate that a nanotube with an average diameter of 140 nm and an optimal tube length of 18.5 μm with a thin tube wall (20 nm) is the optimum structure required to achieve high photocatalytic reaction. In addition, the existence of carbon, high degree of anatase crystallinity, smooth wall and absence of fluorine enhanced the photocatalytic activity of the sample.