Thyroid hormone and circadian regulation of the binding activity of a liver-specific protein associated with the 5'-flanking region of the S14 gene
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Recent studies have described a DNase I hypersensitive site in the 5'-flanking region of the rat hepatic S14 gene that is closely associated with its expression. A 111-base pair subfragment (-389 to -279) of this region interacts specifically in a gel shift assay with a protein present in hepatic nuclear protein extracts. This protein, designated P1, was not present in extracts of other tissues, even those in which the gene is expressed and hormonally regulated. The binding activity of P1 is
... ctivity of P1 is exceedingly low in extracts from hypothyroid rats and is markedly increased by administration of thyroid hormone. However, the slow accumulation of P1 after thyroid hormone administration indicates that increased levels of P1 are not necessary for the acute hormonal induction of S14 gene expression. The level of P1 binding activity increases in the evening, synchronous with circadian variation of hepatic mRNA S14. Since neither P1 binding activity nor circadian variation in mRNA-S14 levels are observed in the other tissues expressing the S14 gene, P1 may function to modulate the circadian rhythm observed in hepatic S14 gene expression. DNase I footprinting analysis revealed that P1 binds to a defined nucleotide sequence, 5'-AAAAGAGCTATTGATTGCCTGCA-3', located between -310 and -288 in the S14 gene.