Neonatal mortality in Argentina. Situation analysis from 2005 to 2014
Archivos Argentinos de Pediatria
Introduction. Neonatal mortality (NM) refers to deaths occurring between birth and 27 days of life. This component of infant mortality has shown the least reduction over the past 50 years. The objective of this study was to analyze the course and characteristics of NM in Argentina. Population and methods. This was a descriptive, ecological study of NM in Argentina conducted between 2005 and 2014 to analyze its course, causes, and the relevance of prematurity and a low birth weight. Records of
... e Health Statistics and Information Department of the Ministry of Health of Argentina were used. Results. The neonatal mortality rate reduced by 19.2% (2005: 8.9‰; 2014: 7.2‰); the early component (between birth and 6 days of life), by 20% (2005: 6.5‰; 2014: 5.2‰); and the late component (between 7 and 27 days of life), by 13% (2005: 2.3‰; 2014: 2‰) . Disorders originating in the perinatal period and congenital malformations were the cause of more than 95% of neonatal deaths in this period. The relative significance of disorders originating in the perinatal period reduced, but that of congenital malformations increased. Preterm and low birth weight live births had the greatest risk of neonatal death. A younger gestational age and a lower birth weight resulted in a lower reduction of specific neonatal mortality rate. Conclusion. In the past 10 years, NM has reduced significantly. Disorders originating in the perinatal period and congenital malformations were the cause of almost all deaths in this age group. NM was associated with a low birth weight and prematurity.