Continuous and Noninvasive Estimation of Right Ventricle Systolic Blood Pressure Using Heart Sound Signal by Deep Bidirectional LSTM Network
Objective: Timely monitoring right ventricular systolic blood pressure (RVSBP) is helpful in the early detection of pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, it is not easy to monitor RVSBP directly. The objective of this paper is to develop a deep learning technique for RVSBP noninvasive estimation using heart sound (HS) signals supported by (electrocardiography) ECG signals without complex features extraction. Methods: Five beagle dog subjects were used. The medicine U-44069 was injected into the
... s injected into the subjects to induce a wide range of RVSBP variation. The blood pressure in right ventricle, ECG of lead I and HS signals were recorded simultaneously. Thirty-two records were collected. The relations between RVSBP and cyclic HS signals were modeled by the Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (Bi-LSTM) network. Results: The mean absolute error (MAE) ± standard deviation (SD) inside record was 1.85 ± 1.82 mmHg. It was 4.37 ± 2.49 mmHg across record but within subject. The corrective factors were added after training the Bi-LSTM network across subjects. Finally, the MAE ± SD from 12.46 ± 6.56 mmHg dropped to 6.37 ± 4.90 mmHg across subjects. Significance: Our work was the first to apply the Bi-LSTM network to build relations between the HS signal and RVSBP. This work suggested a noninvasive and continuous RVSBP estimation using the HS signal supported by the ECG signal by deep learning architecture without the need of healthcare professionals.