The Effects of Knowledge-Transforming Text on Elementary Students' Declarative, Procedural Knowledge, and Motivation in Environmental Learning
International Journal of Instruction
In environmental learning, declarative and procedural knowledge is needed to to improve understanding of concepts and problem solving. The text used in KTT contains descriptions and arguments to understand declarative and procedural knowledge. This study aimed to investigate the effect of applying knowledgetransforming text (KTT) on declarative, procedural knowledge, and students' presentation skill as well as their motivation towards learning with KTT applied in environmental education
... l education material. The study applied control group design. Prior to treatment, homogeneity tests were carried out with one way ANOVA test. Furthermore, in the experimental class instructional strategy armed with KTT was in place, the result of which was then analyzed by several quantitative analyses. These analyses included (1) normality test with a non-parametric one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test; (2) Mann-Whitney U test non-parametric statistic to compares the means between unrelated groups on some continous, and (3) significance tests. The results showed that KTT posed significant effect on declarative and procedural knowledge yet it insignificantly affected student presentation skills. The significant effects of KTT learning on declarative and procedural knowledge was supported by content space, rhetorical space, and corrective elements in KTT. Quantitaive descriptive analysis was carried out by interpreting the percentage of student motivation as investigated by questionnaires on KTT learning. Students were relatively motivated towards KTT and hoped to learn to use KTT. The purpose of text learning in EE is basically knowledge, attitude, and skills that are realized declaratively in understanding definitions, concepts, meaning of terms, and description of facts. In addition, procedurally speaking, students have to be able to explain how to solve problems in logical and appropriate stages, make products, and explain how to create the products. From the attitudinal aspect, teacher motivates students to think and act in accordance with the declarative and procedural knowledge they obtain, for example no littering, planting and caring for trees, and actively maintaining cleanliness and environmental sustainability such as holding school cleaning activities, releasing hatchlings at the beach, and planting trees around the house and school. The two types of knowledge being referred are declarative and procedural knowledge. The following is the differences and commonalities between the two.