Civil Islam atau Uncivil State: Masalah Demokratisasi dalam Masyarakat Muslim

Saiful Mujani
Hefner, in bis book entitled Civil Islam, proposes Indonesia as a relevant case in tbe debate anTong studnnts of Muslim society and dernocrary as to uhetber Islam is inimical to democraq. He argues tbat Indonesian Muslims are more likely to support d dernocratic political rystem because ciail Islam, tbat is a set of beliefs uitbin tbe Muslim cornrnunity that supports tbe separation of religious and political authority, pluralism and tolerance of felloza (non-Muslim) citizens and tbeir behert,
more » ... and tbeir behert, is persistent. From a political cuhure approach to democraqt, tbis culture is crucial for tbe emergence and consolidation of democraqt. I, hoarcoer, believe tbat tbis book oaerstates the signifi.cance of civil Islam in tbe case of Indonesia, and cannot explain the fact that democracy is a rare pbeno?nenon in tbe Muslirn zaorld, including in Indonesian bistory. It is true tbat Iskrn was brought to the archipehgo by traders and preachers ratber tban by military expansion, and that tbese traders constituted a community relatively autononxous of tbe sate. Hefner highligbts some Muslim kingdoms or sultanates, especially in Buton, in utbich Muslim traders played a significant role in the selection of the sultanate. He beliepes that this participation constituted a "plurocentric poli4t" uhicb indicates a precedence of cioil Islam. I argue tbat tbis polity was a deuiant case As tbe majority of kingdoms or sultanates in the pre-colonial Archi pekgo zaere more farniliar uitb the unity of religion and state. Hefner also notes tbe emergence of an autonornous Muslim community, i.e. Pesantren, or Iskmic schools. Tltis community could haae grown to be important for a stronger cioil Islam, but Hefner bimself found that the cuhure that grezu utithin tbe Pesantren aras not cittil kkm, but rather a 165
doi:10.15408/sdi.v8i2.692 fatcat:b5dgxxga6bhthkucka2kjw5fqm