Role of environmental rights in the urban design of public places

A Sadeghi, N Panahi
2016 Int. J. Hum. Capital Urban Manage   unpublished
In the current period, followed by the industrial revolution, the damaging effects of the one-dimensional attitude towards the environment caused by human have had countless hazards. To cope with these risks, the respect and protection of environmental values has attracted today's urban human attention once again and the issues about the human right to a decent, safe and healthy environment which is called briefly" environmental rights ", have widely been discussed. In fact, this research is
more » ... this research is formed on the basis of the principle that the right to a healthy environment, must be respected in the design of public spaces and the legal aspects of this principle must be considered in dealing with these spaces, so one of the necessary contexts to the conversion of today's public spaces to valuable urban places would be provided. Therefore, in this study the human right to a healthy, safe and decent environment and the related concepts has been reviewed and the role of the environment in the process of transforming urban spaces to urban places has been discussed. This study also emphasizes on the role of the noise pollution of the urban public spaces as one of the threatening factors of the right to the environment, in the inefficiency and disorder in the process of the conversion of these spaces to public places and while reviewing the laws to reduce such pollution in urban public spaces, it stresses the necessity of considering these rules in designing the urban public spaces. This study uses descriptive and analytic research methodology and investigation techniques of literature review by using library studies. INTRODUCTION Reviewing the history shows that the human interaction with the environment as a part of the ecosystem, includes three stages, these stages are: The domination of man by nature, the domination of nature by man and the interaction and integration of man and nature. The first phase consists of an era in which human was completely subdued by the nature and wasn't able to manipulate it. In this period, which begins with the development and creation of man, the manipulation of man in nature and environment wasn't so significant that it wasn't harmful and the nature could easily tolerate, compensate and rebuild the