Biochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Biological Activities of the Essential Oil and Fruit Extract of Xanthium strumarium Linn. From Northern Iran
J. Agr. Sci. Tech
This study examines the chemical composition of the essential oil of Xanthium strumarium fruits, and evaluates its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities on various plant pathogens that commonly cause irreparable damages to agricultural crops. The essential oil of X. strumarium fruits was analyzed by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Antimicrobial activity was tested against 14 microorganisms, including three gram-positive, five gram-negative bacteria and six fungi,
... and six fungi, using disk diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) technique. The X. strumarium fruits were also subjected to screening for possible antioxidant activity by using catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase enzymes and 2, 2-DiPhenyl-1-Picryl Hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Thirty six components were identified, representing 97.89% of the total oil, with methyl linoleate (40.64%), methyl oleate (13.12%), and methyl palmitate (12.43%) being the major ingredients. The essential oil showed significant activity against Rathayibacter toxicus (MIC= 25 µg mL-1), and Pyricularia oryzae (MIC= 12.5 µg mL-1). In addition, the analysis of free radical scavenging activities of the X. strumarium fruits revealed antiradical activity of 138.87 µg mL-1 in DPPH, 32.766 µmole activity/mg protein in catalase, 5.567 mmol activity/mg protein in guaiacol peroxidase and 1.714 U mg-1 protein in superoxide dismutase. Furthermore, the phytochemical analysis showed moderate to good amounts of alkaloid (0.54 mg g-1), phenolic (54.44 mg g-1) and flavonoid (20.11 mg g-1) compounds in X. strumarium fruits. Our results suggest that this plant may be a potential source of biocide, for economical and environmentally friendly disease control strategies. It may also be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations.