Natural Scaffolds with Multi-Target Activity for the Potential Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

Luca Piemontese, Gabriele Vitucci, Marco Catto, Antonio Laghezza, Filippo Perna, Mariagrazia Rullo, Fulvio Loiodice, Vito Capriati, Michele Solfrizzo
2018 Molecules  
A few symptomatic drugs are currently available for Alzheimer's Disease (AD) therapy, but these molecules are only able to temporary improve the cognitive capacity of the patients if administered in the first stages of the pathology. Recently, important advances have been achieved about the knowledge of this complex condition, which is now considered a multi-factorial disease. Researchers are, thus, more oriented toward the preparation of molecules being able to contemporaneously act on
more » ... usly act on different pathological features. To date, the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and of β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation as well as the antioxidant activity and the removal and/or redistribution of metal ions at the level of the nervous system are the most common investigated targets for the treatment of AD. Since many natural compounds show multiple biological properties, a series of secondary metabolites of plants or fungi with suitable structural characteristics have been selected and assayed in order to evaluate their potential role in the preparation of multi-target agents. Out of six compounds evaluated, 1 showed the best activity as an antioxidant (EC50 = 2.6 ± 0.2 μmol/µmol of DPPH) while compound 2 proved to be effective in the inhibition of AChE (IC50 = 6.86 ± 0.67 μM) and Aβ1–40 aggregation (IC50 = 74 ± 1 μM). Furthermore, compound 6 inhibited BChE (IC50 = 1.75 ± 0.59 μM) with a good selectivity toward AChE (IC50 = 86.0 ± 15.0 μM). Moreover, preliminary tests on metal chelation suggested a possible interaction between compounds 1, 3 and 4 and copper (II). Molecules with the best multi-target profiles will be used as starting hit compounds to appropriately address future studies of Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs).
doi:10.3390/molecules23092182 pmid:30158491 fatcat:ujz7mde4kja7jfjt64zpmtsnhm