AN EXFOLIATIVE CYTOLOGICAL STUDY OF QUALITATIVE CHANGES IN BUCCAL MUCOSA CELLS OF TYPE 2 DIABETES PATIENTS IN SOUTH GUJARAT REGION
International Journal of Anatomy and Research
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease and affects many organs of the body including oral mucosa. Exfoliative cytology can be used to detect the effects of diabetes on buccal mucosa cells. Aim: The present study will evaluate the qualitative changes (cytomorphology) of buccal mucosal cells in type 2 diabetic patients and compare that with the non-diabetic individuals of South Gujarat region. Materials and Method: Present study was done on 50 type 2 diabetic patients (case) and 50 healthy
... and 50 healthy individuals (control) selected as per exclusion and inclusion criteria. Procedure was explained to the participants and informed written consent was taken. Buccal mucosa smears were taken and stained with Pap's stain. 100 cells of each Pap stained smear was examined under a research microscope for various cytomorphological changes. Smears were examined for cell morphology like binucleation, pyknosis, perinuclear halo, cytoplasmic granules, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, cytoplsmic vacuoles and micronuclei. All data were noted and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Mean values of binucleated cells, pyknotic cells, perinuclear halo, cytoplasmic granules, karyolytic cells, karyorrhectic cells, cytoplasmic vacuoles and micronuclei were noted in controls and cases. Significant differences in between non-diabetic control and diabetic cases for mean values of binucleation (p<0.001), pyknosis (p<0.001), perinuclear halo (p<0.001), cytoplasmic granules (p<0.001), karyolysis (p=0.026) and karyorrhexis (p<0.001) was observed. But no significant differences in the mean cells for cytoplasmic vacuoles (p=0.109) and micronuclei (p=0.176) were found between diabetics cases and non-diabetics control. Conclusion: The results of present study showed that buccal mucosa of diabetic case group is associated with significant differences in the mean values of qualitative changes like binucleation, pyknosis, perinuclear halo, cytoplasmic granules, karyolysis and karyorrhexis when compare to non-diabetic control group. Diabetes produces significant qualitative (cytomorphologic) changes in the buccal mucosa cells that can be documented by exfoliative cytology.