Gregory J Chaitin
1987 Information, Randomness & Incompleteness  
This paper attempts to describe, in nontechnical language, some of the concepts and methods of one school of thought regarding computational complexity. It applies the viewpoint of information theory to computers. This will first lead us to a definition of the degree of randomness of individual binary strings, and then to an information-theoretic version of Gödel's theorem on the limitations of the axiomatic method. Finally, we will examine in the light of these ideas the scientific method and
more » ... entific method and von Neumann's views on the basic conceptual problems of biology. This field's fundamental concept is the complexity of a binary string, that is, a string of bits, of zeros and ones. The complexity of a binary string is the minimum quantity of information needed to define the string. For example, the string of length n consisting entirely of ones is of complexity approximately log 2 n, because only log 2 n bits of information are required to specify n in binary notation. However, this is rather vague. Exactly what is meant by the definition of a string? To make this idea precise a computer is used. One says that a string defines another when the first string gives instructions for constructing the second string. In other words, one string defines another when it is a program for a computer to calculate the second string. The fact that a string of n ones is of complexity approximately log 2 n can now be translated more correctly into the following. There is a program log 2 n + c bits long that calculates the string of n ones. The program performs a loop for printing ones n times. A fixed number c of bits are needed to program the loop, and log 2 n bits more for specifying n in binary notation. Exactly how are the computer and the concept of information combined to define the complexity of a binary string? A computer is considered to take one binary string and perhaps eventually produce another. The first string is the program that has been given to the machine. The second string is the output of this program; it is what this program calculates. Now consider a given string that is to be calculated. How much information must be given to the machine to do this? That is to say, what is the length in bits of the shortest program for calculating the string? This is its complexity. It can be objected that this is not a precise definition of the complexity of a string, inasmuch as it depends on the computer that one is using. Moreover, a definition should not be based on a machine, but rather on a model that does not have the physical limitations of real computers. Here we will not define the computer used in the definition of complexity. However, this can indeed be done with all the precision of which mathematics is capable. Since 1936 it has been known how Pagina 1 di 10
doi:10.1142/9789814434058_0003 fatcat:cdrujf3li5frdkfqqg2m4nqxzm