Growth and Yield Responses of Two Soybean Cultivars Grown under Controlled Groundwater Level in Southwestern Japan
Plant Production Science
One of the limiting factors of soybean yield in southwestern Japan is soil moisture fluctuation from flooding to drought. The Farm-Oriented Enhancing Aquatic System (FOEAS), which consists of underdrain and sub-irrigation systems and can keep groundwater levels stable, was developed in 2005 to solve this problem. To obtain basic information on soybean cultivation using the FOEAS in southwestern Japan, we examined the growth response to groundwater level by using two cultivars (cv. Fukuyutaka
... (cv. Fukuyutaka and Sachiyutaka) in 2008 and 2010. Plant growth, yield, yield components and seed components (protein and oil contents) were analyzed. We also studied the effect of sowing time (normal or late). The groundwater level was controlled at depths of 20 and 35 cm or not treated (NT) as a control. The groundwater level could be kept at the target depths (20 and 35 cm) by FOEAS throughout the experimental period, but that in the NT plot fluctuated greatly. The growth and yield of Sachiyutaka might be increased by FOEAS, especially in late sowing, but the yield of normal sown Sachiyutaka was decreased in the 20-cm plot in 2010. Yield of late-sown Fukuyutaka tended to be decreased in the 20-cm plot. These results suggest that (1) the optimum groundwater level for yield of Sachiyutaka is between 20 and 35 cm, regardless of sowing time and (2) the groundwater level should not be kept at 20 cm for late-sown Fukuyutaka. Further studies are needed to determine the optimum groundwater level for each cultivar.