Characterization of Metabolic Changes under Low Mineral Supply (N, K, or Mg) and Supplemental LED Lighting (Red, Blue, or Red–Blue Combination) in Perilla frutescens Using a Metabolomics Approach
In order to achieve premium quality with crop production, techniques involving the adjustment of nutrient supply and/or supplemental lighting with specific light quality have been applied. To examine the effects of low mineral supply and supplemental lighting, we performed non-targeted metabolite profiling of leaves and stems of the medicinal herb Perilla frutescens, grown under a lower (0.75×) and lowest (0.1×) supply of different minerals (N, K, or Mg) and under supplemental light-emitting
... l light-emitting diode (LED) lighting (red, blue, or red–blue combination). The lowest N supply increased flavonoids, and the lowest K or Mg slightly increased rosmarinic acid and some flavonoids in the leaves and stems. Supplemental LED lighting conditions (red, blue, or red–blue combination) significantly increased the contents of chlorophyll, most cinnamic acid derivatives, and rosmarinic acid in the leaves. LED lighting with either blue or the red–blue combination increased antioxidant activity compared with the control group without LED supplementation. The present study demonstrates that the cultivation of P. frutescens under low mineral supply and supplemental LED lighting conditions affected metabolic compositions, and we carefully suggest that an adjustment of minerals and light sources could be applied to enhance the levels of targeted metabolites in perilla.