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Annals of Statistics
ML-estimation based on mixtures of Normal distributions is a widely used tool for cluster analysis. However, a single outlier can make the parameter estimation of at least one of the mixture components break down. Among others, the estimation of mixtures of t-distributions by McLachlan and Peel [Finite Mixture Models (2000) Wiley, New York] and the addition of a further mixture component accounting for "noise" by Fraley and Raftery [The Computer J. 41 (1998) 578-588] were suggested as moredoi:10.1214/009053604000000571 fatcat:c5wsc3vfz5aprfcxlebhvwd5qq