Resource-Constrained Machine Learning for ADAS: A Systematic Review

Juan Borrego-Carazo, David Castells-Rufas, Ernesto Biempica, Jordi Carrabina
2020 IEEE Access  
The advent of machine learning (ML) methods for the industry has opened new possibilities in the automotive domain, especially for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). These methods mainly focus on specific problems ranging from traffic sign and light recognition to pedestrian detection. In most cases, the computational resources and power budget found in ADAS systems are constrained while most machine learning methods are computationally intensive. The usual solution consists in adapting
more » ... the ML models to comply with the memory and real-time (RT) requirements for inference. Some models are easily adapted to resource-constrained hardware, such as Support Vector Machines, while others, like Neural Networks, need more complex processes to fit into the desired hardware. The ADAS hardware (HW platforms) are diverse, from complex MPSoC CPUs down to classical MCUs, DPSs and application-specific FPGAs and ASICs or specific GPU platforms (such as the NVIDIA families Tegra or Jetson). Therefore, there is a tradeoff between the complexity of the ML model implemented and the selected platform that impacts the performance metrics: function results, energy consumption and speed (latency and throughput). In this paper, a survey in the form of systematic review is conducted to analyze the scope of the published research works that embed ML models into resource-constrained implementations for ADAS applications and what are the achievements regarding the ML performance, energy and speed trade-off. INDEX TERMS Machine learning, embedded software, automotive engineering, GPU, FPGA, ADAS. 40576 VOLUME 8, 2020
doi:10.1109/access.2020.2976513 fatcat:mgoek62t6zhp3hikgqv36ibpua