Deep Learning Use for Differentiation of Low-grade vs High-Grade Glioma in Intraoperative Squash Smears
ObjectiveAutomated diagnosis using Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques would be a useful addition to the intraoperative squash smear diagnosis. A robust diagnostic tool would enhance capabilities in centres where there is limited expertise for the diagnosis of intracranial lesions. The study aims to explore possibilities of deep learning technique-based models to classify squash smear images of glioma into high- and low-grade tumors.Methods500 Scanned images of squash smear were obtained
... ar were obtained intraoperatively and dataset was built. Image dataset was then pre-processed and fed into a CNN (Convolutional Neural Network) model for training and validation. The dataset consisted of 10,000 images of high (6000) and low (4000) grade gliomas, divided into three sets of training, validation and testing. ResultsCNN model based on deep learning algorithm was built and trained on training dataset to get accuracy of 96.2%. On a testing dataset which contains images previously unseen by trained model, it could achieve accuracies of 91% for diagnosing high grade glioma and 77% for low grade glioma. A positive predictive value of 86.6% and F1-score of 0.887 was achieved. Feature visualization technique was applied at the end to visualize regions of interest.ConclusionDeep Learning techniques can be applied as diagnostic tool if proper standardized images are obtained for reporting of squash smears of gliomas. The diagnostic accuracies of such tools can reach up to current standard diagnostic accuracies by conventional ways of reporting. Feature visualization techniques applied which can be used for rapid screening of slides or section of slide to assist in rapid diagnosis.