Increased phagocytosis in the presence of enhanced M2-like macrophage responses correlates with increased primary and latent HSV-1 infection

Ujjaldeep Jaggi, Mingjie Yang, Harry H. Matundan, Satoshi Hirose, Prediman K. Shah, Behrooz G. Sharifi, Homayon Ghiasi, Clinton Jones
2020 PLoS Pathogens  
After HSV-1 infection, macrophages infiltrate early into the cornea, where they play an important role in HSV-1 infection. Macrophages are divided into M1 or M2 groups based on their activation. M1 macrophages are pro-inflammatory, while M2 macrophages are anti-inflammatory. Macrophage phenotypes can shift between M1 or M2 in vitro and in vivo following treatment with specific cytokines. In this study we looked at the effect of M2 macrophages on HSV-1 infectivity using mice either lacking M2
more » ... ither lacking M2 (M2-/-) or overexpressing M2 (M2-OE) macrophages. While presence or absence of M2 macrophages had no effect on eye disease, we found that over expression of M2 macrophages was associated with increased phagocytosis, increased primary virus replication, increased latency, and increased expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, in mice lacking M2 macrophages following infection phagocytosis, replication, latency, and cytokine expression were similar to wild type mice. Our results suggest that enhanced M2 responses lead to higher phagocytosis, which affected both primary and latent infection but not reactivation.
doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1008971 pmid:33031415 fatcat:xp6h5xwnczh7ha2wfjv7bqhfqe