The statistics of electron–hole avalanches

P. Windischhofer, W. Riegler
2021 Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A : Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment  
A B S T R A C T Charge multiplication through avalanche processes is commonly employed in the detection of single photons or charged particles in high-energy physics and beyond. In this report, we provide a detailed discussion of the properties of avalanches driven by two species of charge carriers, e.g. electrons and holes in a semiconductor exposed to an electric field. We derive equations that describe the general case of avalanches developing in position-dependent electric fields and give
more » ... c fields and give their analytical solutions for constant fields. We discuss consequences for the time resolution achievable with detectors that operate above the breakdown limit, e.g. single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) and silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Our results also describe avalanches that achieve finite gain and are important for avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and low-gain avalanche detectors (LGADs).
doi:10.1016/j.nima.2021.165327 fatcat:ihgsekrrnrhe5hmejejj6dne7e