Reconstrução e asfaltamento da Rodovia BR–319: Efeito "dominó" pode elevar as taxas de desmatamento no Sul do Estado de Roraima

Paulo Eduardo Barni
2009 unpublished
e Tecnologias -MCT, por proporcionar inscrição nas conferencias do LBA (Large-Scale Biosphere, Atmosphere Program in Amazonia) em Manaus e da rede GEOMA em Belém (2008); Em Manaus, agradeço Daniel Assunção pela demonstração de generosidade e desprendimento ao repassar valiosa bibliografia do Dinamica; ao Dr. Bruce Nelson e ao Dr. Euler Melo Nogueira pelos dados de biomassa florestal e explicações valiosas. Em Boa Vista, agradeço ao Dr. Reinaldo Barbosa pelo incentivo, entusiasmo, amizade e
more » ... smo, amizade e pelos dados de biomassa de savana e campinarana existentes em Roraima. vi Em Belo Horizonte, agradeço a equipe do laboratório de sensoriamento remoto do departamento de geografia da UFMG: Britaldo Soares-Filho, Hermann Rodrigues e Willian Leles pela disposição sempre presente e paciência ao nos desvendar os "mistérios" desse FANTÁSTICO programa chamado DINAMICA-EGO. Quero agradecer também todos os meus colegas de mestrado, Tawada, Fernando, Bruno, Caroline, Juvenas, Marcão Bento, Zeca, Priscila, Geisi, Thais, Claudia, Miho, Marciel e Matheus, pelo companheirismo e os momentos de descontração. Também a Gabriel Carrero, por acompanhar-me em minha viagem de campo. Agradeço também aos técnicos do Laboratório de Agro ecologia, Raimundo e Robson pela disposição sempre rápida em ajudar e às "anônimas" (quase "invisíveis") profissionais da limpeza por nos proporcionar, diariamente, um ambiente limpo e higienizado. vii ix SUMMARY The reconstruction and paving of the BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho) Highway, which is expected under the Federal Government's Program for the Acceleration of Growth (PAC), will allow access from the "arc of deforestation" to the immense blocks of continuous primary forest in central and northern Amazonia. Innumerable studies carried out in the region point to construction of roads as the main cause of deforestation. In particular, the BR-319 Highway has a very great potential to channel deforestation and to initiate a new migratory cycle to remote regions that currently lack road access. This is due to the lack of arable land available to small and medium farmers in the arc of the deforestation, caused mainly by the advance of extensive cattle ranching and agribusiness. This situation will be aggravated with the ending of construction work on the Jirau and Santo Antonio hydroelectric dams, upstream of Porto Velho on the Madeira River. These construction projects are also included in the PAC. Studies indicate that the dam-construction projects will attract approximately 100 thousand people to the region. These people will have practically no options for work and survival with the ending of the construction projects. It is quite probable that part of this contingent will swell the expected migratory flow of diverse actors that are "expelled" from the arc of deforestation, moving to the Manaus and Boa Vista areas via the reconstructed BR-319. The southern portion of the state of Roraima, which is the subject of our study, would be particularly vulnerable to uncontrolled deforestation if exposed to a migratory flow of this magnitude. This region is accessible from Manaus via the BR-174 Highway, which goes to Venezuela and the Caribbean. The recent history of migration and settlement began in the 1970s and was marked mainly by the opening of Settlement Projects (PAs) by the National Institute for Colonization and Agrarian Reform (INCRA). In the 1990s and 2000s, new settlement projects were created under the aegis of the government of Roraima to attract new migrants to the state, which had lost population due to the closing of many gold mines in 1990. Currently, in the southern portion of Roraima this picture is aggravated by the chaotic agrarian situation, by denunciations of illegal occupancies of public lands, illegal logging and the unrestricted advance of cattle ranching at the expense of forest, causing degradation of the environment and loss of its ecological functions. Thus, the main objective of our study was to model the dynamics of land-use and land-cover change in southern Roraima and to estimate carbon emissions to the atmosphere caused by these changes. We produced four scenarios of future deforestation in this region, simulated between 2007 and 2030, using the AGROECO model in the operational framework of the DINAMICA-EGO© simulation software. This dissertation is divided into two chapters. In Chapter I an analysis was made of the occurrence of deforestation as a function of the proximity of the BR-174 and BR-210 Highways that cut through the southern portion of Roraima. We associated the observed deforestation with the processes of land-use and land-cover change in the study area over the
doi:10.13140/rg.2.2.33413.50403 fatcat:yxvp4kievjah3il5ir6mmfahry