Relationships between Students' Socioeconomic Status, Parental Support, Students' Hindering, Teachers' Hindering and Students' Literacy Scores: PISA 2018
World Journal of Education
This research was conducted in Turkey and it examined the relationships between fifteen-year-old students' PISA 2018 literacy scores and student-level and school-level variables. This study aimed to examine the relationships between students' hindering, teachers' hindering, socioeconomic status, parental support and student achievement. The research is a correlational study. A relational screening model was used in this research. Six thousand eight hundred and ninety students from one hundred
... from one hundred and eighty-six schools in twelve regions of the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) Level 1 joined PISA 2018 in Turkey. OECD selected these students randomly. In PISA 2018, school sampling was determined by a stratified random sampling method. Teachers' hindering, students' hindering questionnaires are from the school principals' questionnaire and the parental support questionnaire was taken from the student questionnaire. Additionally, students' genders and their socioeconomic status were taken from the background questionnaire. To analyze these variables, a hierarchic linear model was used. Multilevel structural modeling (MSEM) was selected and Bayesian estimation with latent variables was performed. There are direct relationships between students' genders, socioeconomic status, teachers' hindering behaviors, students' hindering behaviors, parental support and Turkish students' reading skill scores. There is also an indirect relationship between teachers' hindering behavior and students' reading skill scores via students' hindering behavior.