Multi-Criteria Evaluation for Flood Suitability Areas of Lokoja Metropolis of Kogi State Nigeria Using Geospatial Techniques

Augustine C. Emeribeole, Chukwudi Andy Okereke
2019 The International Journal of Science & Technoledge  
Flooding is one of the world's most frequent and widespread environmental hazardsand of various types and magnitude (Sanyal, 2004). It has caused great damage and disruption to economic livelihood, businesses, infrastructure, services and public health (Ikhuria et al 2012). Nwafor (2006) defined flooding as a natural hazard which occurs as an extreme hydrological (runoff) event. European Commission (2007) defined flood as a natural phenomenon which results in the temporary submerging with water
more » ... of a land that does not occur under normal conditions. Flooding is the accumulation of excess water which rises to overflow the land which is not normally submerged (Mukhopadhyay, 2010). This include overflow from water bodies such as rivers, lake, sea as well as overflow from heavy rainfall, snow melt and dam break, in which water escape out of its natural boundaries (Leinster, 2009). Flooding is rated as one of the most devastating natural hazards, which leads to significant economic and social damages than any other natural phenomenon (Disaster Management Support Group, DMSG, 2001). According to Mohammed (2018), flood is a hazard that result from extreme meteorological events such as heavy rainfall, causing rivers and oceans to overflow their banks and can have farreaching effects on the people and the environment. It can also be caused by conventional or frontal storms whereby a lot of rainfall is experienced in a short duration of time. Ahmed et al (2011), stated that intensity and duration of rainfall are the most influencing factors for flood hazard. Globally, several flood cases have been documented. In India, one hundred and twenty five people have been recorded to be killed owing to flood and over 12 million others were displaced in 2007 Flood disaster that hit Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Assam province (Isa et al 2015). Cinque et al (2003) stated that flood is a hazard that can be avoided, minimized by building more dams or by constructing more flood defence systems or by utilizing modern technologies and appropriate urban planning in flood risk area. In Nigeria, flooding has caused significant harm to livelihood and properties worth millions of Naira. It occurs sequel to extensive rainfall, drainage blockages and dam failures (Jeb and Aggarwal, 2008). Flood is a common feature in Nigeria, especially during the urban flooding which occurs in towns, on flat or low -lying terrain where little or no provision has been made for surface drainage or where the existing drainage has been blocked with refuses, eroded soil sediments and municipal waste (Folorunsho and Awosika, 2001). Flooding in Nigeria is dated back to 1960 in Ibadan city, when Ogunpa river over-flew its banks, causing a considerable damage to lives and properties (Adegbola and Jolayemi 2012; Agbola et al, 2012). Since then, the occurrence of floods has spread nationwide. In 2012, the national Emergency Management Agency (NEMA) recorded that about 1.3 million Nigerians have been displaced owing to flood and 431 died
doi:10.24940/theijst/2019/v7/i2/st1902-008 fatcat:s2kbhvu4nrft5mt3uqbawpne2u