Strategic Management Instruments for Cyber-Physical Organizations: Technological Posthumanization as a Driver of Strategic Innovation
International Journal of Contemporary Management
Background. Strategic management instruments (SMIs) are tools used to analyze an organization's strategic situation, formulate effective strategies, and successfully implement them. Despite SMIs' importance, there has been little systematic research into them -and especially regarding the impact of emerging technologies on SMIs. Research aims. Here we investigate whether the forces of technological posthumanization that are creating a new class of 'cyber-physical organizations' can be expected
... s' can be expected to affect innovation in the use of SMIs within such organizations. Methodology. Through a review of strategic management literature, we identify nearly 100 SMIs and categorize them according to their use in (a) strategic analysis, (b) strategy formulation, or (c) strategy implementation. Meanwhile, an analysis of cyber-physical systems and technological posthumanization reveals three dynamics that are converging to create an emerging class of cyber-physical organizations: (a) roboticization of the workforce; (b) deepening human-computer integration; and (c) the ubiquitization of computation. A framework is developed for mapping the impacts of these dynamics onto the inputs, agents, processes, and outputs involved with the three types of SMIs. Key findings. Application of the framework shows that technological posthumanization should be expected to both facilitate and require innovation in cyber-physical organizations' use of all three types of SMIs.