Bias correction of long-path CO2 observations in a complex urban environment for carbon cycle model inter-comparison and data assimilation
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
Abstract. The Greenhouse gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE™) trace gas measurement system, jointly designed and developed by Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. and Spectral Sensor Solutions LLC, provides high-precision, long-path measurements of atmospheric trace gases including CO2 and CH4 over extended (0.04–25 km2) areas of interest. In 2015, a prototype unit was deployed in Paris, France, to demonstrate its ability to provide continuous observations of CO2
... ions of CO2 concentrations along horizontal air segments and two-dimensional (2-D) maps of time-varying CO2 concentrations over a complex urban environment. Subsequently, these data have been adapted to create a physically consistent set of horizontal segment mean concentrations for (1) comparisons to highly accurate in situ point measurements obtained for coincident times within the Greater Paris area, (2) inter-comparisons with results from high spatial and temporal regional carbon cycle model data, and (3) potential assimilation of these data to constrain and inform regional carbon cycle modeling frameworks. To achieve these ends, the GreenLITE™ data are calibrated against precise in situ point measurements to reconcile constant systematic as well as slowly varying temporal differences that exist between in situ and GreenLITE™ measurements to provide unbiased comparisons, and the potential for long-term co-assimilation of both measurements into urban-scale emission models. While both the constant systematic biases and the slowly varying differences may have different impacts on the measurement accuracy and/or precisions, they are in part due to a number of potential common terms that include limitation in the instrument design, uncertainties in spectroscopy and imprecise knowledge of the atmospheric state. This work provides a brief overview of the system design and the current gas concentration retrieval and 2-D reconstruction approaches, a description of the bias-correction approach, the results as applied to data collected in Paris, France, and an analysis of the inter-comparison between collocated in situ measurements and GreenLITE™ observations.