Mitochondrion-mediated iron accumulation promotes carcinogenesis and Warburg effect through reactive oxygen species in osteosarcoma
Background: Iron metabolism disorder is closely associated with several malignant tumors, however the mechanisms underlying iron and the carcinogenesis in osteosarcoma are not yet well understood. Methods: Cell proliferation ability of osteosarcoma cell lines was measured by CCK-8, EdU incorporation and colony formation assays. Cell cycle analysis was detected by flow cytometry. The carcinogenesis of osteosarcoma was measured by soft-agar formation, trans-well and Wound healing-scratch assay.
... ng-scratch assay. Warburg effect was detected by Seahorse respirometry assays. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was measured by Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescent probes. Western blotting was used to measure the expression of mitoferrin 1 (SLC25A37) and mitoferrin 2 (SLC25A28) . Iron level in vitro and vivo was detected by iron assay kit. RNAi stable cell lines was generated using shRNA. Results: Iron promoted proliferation, carcinogenesis and Warburg effect of osteosarcoma cells. Iron-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) played an important role in these processes. Iron accumulated more in mitochondrion than in cytoplasm, suggesting mitochondrion-mediated iron accumulation was involved in the development of osteosarcoma. Moreover, iron upregulated the expression of mitoferrin 1 (SLC25A37) and mitoferrin 2 (SLC25A28) . Knock-down of mitoferrin 1 (SLC25A37) and mitoferrin 2 (SLC25A28) decreased the production of ROS. In addition, iron increased the expression of Warburg key enzymes HK2 and Glut1, and affected AMPK / mTORC1 signaling axis. Conclusions: Mitochondrion-mediated iron accumulation promotes carcinogenesis and Warburg effect of osteosarcoma cells. Meanwhile, iron deprivation might be a novel effective strategy in the treatment of osteosarcoma.