Recent increases in the atmospheric growth rate and emissions of HFC-23 (CHF3) and the link to HCFC-22 (CHClF2) production

Peter G. Simmonds, Matthew Rigby, Archie McCulloch, Martin K. Vollmer, Stephan Henne, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Alistair J. Manning, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, Dickon Young, Ray F. Weiss (+10 others)
2017 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions  
High frequency measurements of the potent hydrofluorocarbon greenhouse gas CHF<sub>3</sub> (HFC-23), a by-product of production of the hydrochlorofluorocarbon HCFC-22 (CHClF<sub>2</sub>), at five core stations of the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) network, combined with measurements of firn and Cape Grim Air Archive (CGAA) air samples, are used to explore the changing atmospheric abundance of HFC-23. These measurements are used in combination with the AGAGE 2-D atmospheric
more » ... AGE 2-D atmospheric 12-box model and a Bayesian inversion methodology to determine model atmospheric mole fractions and the atmospheric history of global HFC-23 emissions. The global modelled annual mole fraction of HFC-23 in the background atmosphere was 28.9&amp;thinsp;±&amp;thinsp;0.6&amp;thinsp;pmol&amp;thinsp;mol<sup>&amp;minus;1</sup> at the end of 2016, representing a 28&amp;thinsp;% increase from 22.6&amp;thinsp;±&amp;thinsp;0.4&amp;thinsp;pmol&amp;thinsp;mol<sup>&amp;minus;1</sup> in 2009. Over the same time frame, the modelled mole fraction of HCFC-22 increased by 19&amp;thinsp;% from 199&amp;thinsp;±&amp;thinsp;2&amp;thinsp;pmol&amp;thinsp;mol<sup>&amp;minus;1</sup> to 237&amp;thinsp;±&amp;thinsp;2&amp;thinsp;pmol&amp;thinsp;mol<sup>&amp;minus;1</sup>. However, the annual average HCFC-22 growth rate decelerated from 2009 to 2016 at an annual average rate of 0.5&amp;thinsp;pmol&amp;thinsp;mol<sup>&amp;minus;1</sup>&amp;thinsp;yr<sup>&amp;minus;2</sup>. <br><br> Our results demonstrate that, following a minimum in HFC-23 global emissions in 2009 of 9.6&amp;thinsp;±&amp;thinsp;0.6&amp;thinsp;Gg&amp;thinsp;yr<sup>&amp;minus;1</sup>, emissions increased to a maximum in 2014 of 14.5&amp;thinsp;±&amp;thinsp;0.6&amp;thinsp;Gg&amp;thinsp;yr<sup>&amp;minus;1</sup>, declining to 12.7&amp;thinsp;±&amp;thinsp;0.6&amp;thinsp;Gg&amp;thinsp;yr<sup>&amp;minus;1</sup> (157&amp;thinsp;Mt &amp;thinsp;CO<sub>2</sub>-eq.&amp;thinsp;yr<sup>&amp;minus;1</sup>) in 2016. The 2009 emissions minimum is consistent with estimates based on national reports and is likely a response to the implementation of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to mitigate HFC-23 emissions by incineration in developing (Non-Annex 1) countries under the Kyoto Protocol. Our derived cumulative emissions of HFC-23 during 2010&amp;ndash;2016 were 89&amp;thinsp;±&amp;thinsp;2&amp;thinsp;Gg (1.1&amp;thinsp;±&amp;thinsp;0.2&amp;thinsp;Gt&amp;thinsp;CO<sub>2</sub>-eq), which led to an increase in radiative forcing of 1.0&amp;thinsp;±&amp;thinsp;0.1&amp;thinsp;mW&amp;thinsp;m<sup>&amp;minus;2</sup>. Although the CDM had reduced global HFC-23 emissions, it cannot now offset the radiative forcing of higher emissions from increasing HCFC-22 production in Non-Annex 1 countries, as the CDM was closed to new entrants in 2009. We also find that the cumulative European HFC-23 emissions from 2010 to 2016 were ~&amp;thinsp;1.3&amp;thinsp;Gg, corresponding to just 1.5&amp;thinsp;% of cumulative global HFC-23 emissions over this same period.
doi:10.5194/acp-2017-929 fatcat:6i33frlegrfddnpqxmhnspycn4