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When exposed to ultraintense x-radiation sources such as free electron lasers (FELs) the innermost electronic shell can efficiently be emptied, creating a transient hollow atom or molecule. Understanding the femtosecond dynamics of such systems is fundamental to achieving atomic resolution in flash diffraction imaging of noncrystallized complex biological samples. We demonstrate the capacity of a correlation method called "partial covariance mapping" to probe the electron dynamics of neon atomsdoi:10.1103/physrevlett.111.073002 pmid:23992061 fatcat:h5p6ts6q5fczjondmeirwf7ys4