A Clean and Tunable Mussel-Inspired Coating Technology by Enzymatic Deposition of Pseudo-Polydopamine (ψ-PDA) Thin Films from Tyramine
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
The tyrosinase-catalyzed oxidation of tyramine, leading to the deposition of pseudo-polydopamine (ψ-PDA) thin films, is disclosed herein as a superior technology for surface functionalization and coating at a neutral pH and at a low substrate concentration, compared to the standard autoxidative PDA coating protocols. Smooth ψ-PDA thin films of variable thickness up to 87 nm were obtained from 1 mM tyramine by varying tyrosinase concentrations (5–100 U/mL). Compared to the PDA films obtained by
... films obtained by the similar enzymatic oxidation of 1 mM dopamine with tyrosinase (T-PDA), ψ-PDA displayed slower deposition kinetics, lower water contact angles in the range of 11°–28°, denoting higher hydrophilicity but similar UV-vis absorption profiles, as well as electrochemical properties and antioxidant activity. MALDI-MS analysis indicated for ψ-PDA a well defined pattern of peaks compatible with dopamine tetrameric structures degraded to a variable extent. The exposure to a tyramine solution of tyrosinase-loaded alginate spheres, or films deposited on glass or polyethylene, resulted in a rapid gel-confined ψ-PDA formation with no leakage or darkening of the solution, allowing the complete recovery and re-utilization of the unreacted tyramine. In contrast, an abundant PDA precipitation outside the gel was observed with dopamine under the same conditions. The ψ-PDA deposition by tyrosinase-catalyzed tyramine oxidation is thus proposed as a controllable and low-waste technology for selective surface functionalization and coating or for clean eumelanin particle production.