Advanced flow MRI: emerging techniques and applications

M. Markl, S. Schnell, C. Wu, E. Bollache, K. Jarvis, A.J. Barker, J.D. Robinson, C.K. Rigsby
2016 Clinical Radiology  
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide non-invasive and non-ionising methods for the highly accurate anatomical depiction of the heart and vessels throughout the cardiac cycle. In addition, the intrinsic sensitivity of MRI to motion offers the unique ability to acquire spatially registered blood flow simultaneously with the morphological data, within a single measurement. In clinical routine, flow MRI is typically accomplished using methods that resolve two spatial dimensions in
more » ... ividual planes and encode the time-resolved velocity in one principal direction, typically oriented perpendicular to the two-dimensional (2D) section. This review describes recently developed advanced MRI flow techniques, which allow for more comprehensive evaluation of blood flow characteristics, such as real-time flow imaging, 2D multiple-venc phase contrast MRI, four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI, quantification of complex haemodynamic properties, and highly accelerated flow imaging. Emerging techniques and novel applications are explored. In addition, applications of these new techniques for the improved evaluation of cardiovascular (aorta, pulmonary arteries, congenital heart disease, atrial fibrillation, coronary arteries) as well as cerebrovascular disease (intra-cranial arteries and veins) are presented. APPLICATIONS Aortic and pulmonary disease It is important to note that flow imaging is typically performed as part of a standard-of-care aortic/pulmonary imaging protocol, which includes additional MRI techniques for the assessment of cardiac function and wall motion (cine imaging), aortic and pulmonary dimensions and geometry (MR angiography), as well as aortic and pulmonary valve morphology and dynamics (cine imaging). The combination with advanced flow imaging provides a comprehensive assessment of aortic/pulmonary structure and function, which has Markl et al.
doi:10.1016/j.crad.2016.01.011 pmid:26944696 pmcid:PMC4930408 fatcat:uj2am6anmzbw3b5gqehsepapqy