Review on History and Evolution of Nanoparticles and Applications in Various Fields
International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology
One of the most exciting innovations of the 21st century is nanotechnology. Nanoscience is a combination of physics, materials science, and biology that deals with atomic and molecular scale. The top-down approach includes the breakdown into nanosized structures or particles of bulk material. The 'bottom-up' is the alternative approach, which has the opportunity to produce less waste and also more economically. By using natural asbestos nanofibers more than 4,500 years ago, humans have already
... anipulated ceramic matrix reinforcement. The synthesis of a colloidal Au nanoparticle solution was reported by Michael Faraday in 1857, which was the first scientific explanation to report nanoparticle preparation and initiated the history of nanomaterials in the scientific arena. Carbon-based materials became the foundation of almost every field of science and engineering after the discovery of' graphene. Important advancements in the field of nano-oncology have also been made by enhancing the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy drugs for a plethora of aggressive human cancers Keywords: Nanotechnology, top-bottom approach, drug delivery I. INTRODUCTION A Greek prefix meaning 'dwarf' or anything very small is referred to as the prefix 'nano' and represents one thousand millionths of a meter (10-9 m). We should differentiate nanoscience and nanotechnology from each other. Nanoscience is the analysis of structures and molecules on nanometer scales ranging from 1 to 100 nm, and the technology that uses it is called nanotechnology  in practical applications such as devices etc. The evolution of nanoscience can be traced back to the time in the 5th century B.C. of the Greeks and Democritus, when scientists considered the question of whether matter is continuous, and thus indefinitely divisible into smaller parts, or made of small, indivisible and indestructible particles, now called atoms by scientists. One of the most exciting innovations of the 21 st century is nanotechnology. It is the ability to transform the theory of nanoscience to useful applications across the nanometer scale of observing, measuring, manipulating, assembling, managing and manufacturing matter. "In the United States, the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) describes nanotechnology as a nanoscale science, engineering and technology (1 to 100 nm) where specific phenomena allow new applications in a broad range of fields, from chemistry, physics and biology to medicine, engineering and electronics". We should differentiate nanoscience and nanotechnology from each other. Nanoscience is a combination of physics, materials science, and biology that deals with atomic and molecular scale material manipulation, while nanotechnology is the ability to measure, manipulate, assemble, monitor, and generate matter on a nanometer scale. There are several reports available that have given the history of nanoscience and technology, but no study is available that summarizes the revolutionary events of nanoscience and technology from the beginning of that period. It is therefore important to summarize the key events in nanoscience and technology in order to fully understand their progress in this area. II. THE CREATIVE PIONEERS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY Richard Feynman, the American physicist and Nobel Prize laureate, presented the idea of nanotechnology in 1959. Feynman gave a lecture entitled "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom" at the California Institute of Technology during the annual meeting of the American Physical Society (Caltech). "Feynman hypothesized in this lecture, "Why can't we write the entire 24 volumes of the Encyclopedia Britannica on the head of a pin? ', and identified the vision of the use of machines for building smaller machines, down to the molecular level . This new idea has shown that the theories of Feynman have been proven correct, and he is considered the father of modern nanotechnology for these reasons. "In 1974, Norio Taniguchi, a Japanese scientist, was the first to use and describe the term "nanotechnology" after fifteen years as: "nanotechnology consists mainly of the processing of material separation, consolidation and deformation by one atom or molecule"  .