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This paper investigates the long-term and causal relationship between energy intensity, real GDP per capita, urbanization and industrialization in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971-2012 using the breakpoint unit root tests developed by Perron (1989) and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model bounds testing to cointegration proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001) and employing a modified version of the Granger causality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995) . Additionally, to test thedoi:10.3390/su8040375 fatcat:wligunf5ybf6xkr4adljtchtke