One Single Question Is not Sufficient to Identify Individuals With Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity
Clinical Psychology in Europe
Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance attributed to Electromagnetic Fields (IEI-EMF) is a self-reported condition where non-specific symptoms are attributed to weak non-ionizing electromagnetic fields. Despite its expanding prevalence, there is no generally accepted diagnostic procedure or definition to identify patients with this condition, thus studies usually apply only one question as inclusion criterion. The aim of our study was to demonstrate the heterogeneity of a self-reported IEI-EMF
... reported IEI-EMF group and to identify further self-report questions that could be applied as inclusion criteria. Cross-sectional on-line survey study was carried out with 473 participants (76.3% women; age: 35.03 ± 13.24 yrs). Self-diagnosed IEI-EMF (as assessed with a yes-or-no question), frequency of EMF-related symptom and severity of the condition were assessed, as well as somatic symptom distress (Patient Health Questionnaire Somatic Symptom Severity Scale, PHQ-15). 72 (15.2%) individuals labelled themselves as IEI-EMF, however only 61% of them remained in the IEI-EMF group after the use of three inclusion criteria instead of one. 21% of the individuals labelling themselves as IEI-EMF reported neither symptoms nor any negative impact on their daily life. A minimum of two questions appear to be necessary as inclusion criteria for IEI-EMF in empirical research. Instead of the widely used yes-or-no question on accepting the IEI-EMF label, occurrence of symptoms attributed to EMF on a regular basis and at least a slight negative impact on daily life are required. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (IEI-EMF) is often assessed by one yes-or-no self-report question. This practice is inappropriate from a conceptual and methodological point of view. At least two questions, assessing frequency of symptoms and their impact, are needed. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (IEI-EMF) is often assessed by one yes-or-no self-report question. This practice is inappropriate from a conceptual and methodological point of view. At least two questions, assessing frequency of symptoms and their impact, are needed.