Altered Functions of Human Blood-Derived Vascular Endothelial Cells by Simulated Microgravity
Gravitational and space research : publication of the American Society for Gravitational and Space Research
AbstractRecently, the increase in incidence of cardiovascular degeneration associated with weightlessness has drawn much attention to the detrimental effects of space travel on cardiovascular health. Particularly, the regulatory role of the endothelium in cardiovascular degeneration has been studied extensively. The goal of this study was to understand the effects of simulated microgravity on the proliferative, secretory, and anti-thrombogenic functions of endothelial cells differentiated from
... ifferentiated from human blood-derived progenitor cells. Exposure to simulated microgravity enhanced proliferation, as well as the release of soluble nitric oxide while downregulating the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). Interestingly, the cells also upregulated gene expression of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), which may be a potential adaptation mechanism of the cells to altered gravity conditions. However, the secretory and proliferative functions had no effect on the anti-thrombogenic functions of these cells. Their anti-coagulative and anti-thrombogenic abilities, as assessed by both upregulation of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and their ability to delay plasma clotting, were impaired on exposure to simulated microgravity. These results collectively provide a useful insight into various mechanisms involved in regulating anti-thrombogenic ability of the endothelium, as well as cardiovascular health in altered gravity conditions.