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The annual National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) measures the literacy and numeracy skills of primary and secondary students in Australia. Under the three Smarter Schools National Partnership, additional funding is provided to the independent schools with the expectation of improving student performance. Using multilevel modelling to account for within-school variables and demographics, we analyse NAPLAN data from the 2008-2011 tests for a sample of independent schools todoi:10.1080/2331186x.2016.1273166 fatcat:2betfadllrczzdqiilndg7wigi