Chemistry and Biosynthesis of Prenylflavonoids
Many isoprenylated ‰avonoids have been isolated from mulberry trees and related plants (Moraceae). Among them, kuwanons G (13) and H (14) were theˆrst isolated active substances exhibiting a hypotensive eŠect from the Japanese Morus root bark. These compounds are considered to be formed through an enzymatic Diels-Alder reaction of a chalcone (15) and dehydro-kuwanon C (16) or its equivalent. Since that time, about forty kinds of Diels-Alder type adducts structurally similar to that of 13 have
... o that of 13 have been isolated from the moraceous plants. Some strains of Morus alba as well as M. bombycis callus tissues have a high productivity of mulberry Diels-Alder type adducts, such as chalcomoracin (26) and kuwanon J (28). The biosynthesis of the mulberry Diels-Alder type adducts has been studied with the aid of the cell strain. Chalcomoracin (26) and kuwanon J (28) were proved to be enzymatic Diels-Alder type reaction products by the administration experiment with O-methylchalcone derivatives. Furthermore, for the isoprenoid biosynthesis of prenyl‰avonoids in Morus alba callus tissues, a novel way through the junction of glycolysis and pentose-phosphate cycle was proposed. The crude enzyme fraction catalyzing the Morus Diels-Alder type reation could be isolated. Studies of phenolic constituents of licorice (Glycyrrhiza species) were carried out. On the course of the structure determination of the phenolic constituents of licorice, two new NMR structure determination methods for prenyl‰avonoids were found. Furthermore, the prenylphenols isolated from licorice were summarized according to the origin of the materials.