Cloning and Functional Characterization of Ptpcd2 as a Novel Cell Cycle Related Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase that Regulates Mitotic Exit
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Faithful transmission of genetic information depends on accurate chromosome segregation as cells exit from mitosis, and errors in chromosomal segregation are catastrophic and may lead to aneuploidy which is the hallmark of cancer. In eukaryotes, an elaborate molecular control system ensures proper orchestration of events at mitotic exit. Phosphorylation of specific tyrosyl residues is a major control mechanism for cellular proliferation and the activities of protein tyrosine kinases and
... kinases and phosphatases must be integrated. Although mitotic kinases are well characterized, phosphatases involved in mitosis remain largely elusive. Here we identify a novel variant of mouse protein tyrosine phosphatase containing domain 1 (Ptpcd1), that we named Ptpcd2. Ptpcd1 is a Cdc14 related centrosomal phosphatase. Our newly identified Ptpcd2 shared a significant homology to yeast Cdc14p (34.1%) and other Cdc14 family of phosphatases. By subcellular fractionation Ptpcd2 was found to be enriched in the cytoplasm and nuclear pellets with catalytic phosphatase activity. By means of immunofluorescence, Ptpcd2 was spatiotemporally regulated in a cell cycle dependent manner with cytoplasmic abundance during mitosis, followed by nuclear localization during interphase. Overexpression of Ptpcd2 induced mitotic exit with decreased levels of some mitotic markers. Moreover, Ptpcd2 failed to colocalize with the centrosomal marker γ-tubulin, suggesting it as a non-centrosomal protein. Taken together, Ptpcd2 phosphatase appears a non-centrosomal variant of Ptpcd1 with probable mitotic functions. The identification of this new phosphatase suggests the existence of an interacting phosphatase network that controls mammalian mitosis and provides new drug targets for anticancer modalities.