Presentations, Causes and Outcomes of Drug-Induced Liver Injury in Egypt

Omkolthoum Alhaddad, Maha Elsabaawy, Eman Abdelsameea, Ayat Abdallah, Ahmed Shabaan, Nermine Ehsan, Ahmed Elrefaey, Dalia Elsabaawy, Mohsen Salama
2020 Scientific Reports  
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a frequent cause of liver injury and acute liver failure. We aimed to review all hospitalized DILI cases in a tertiary Egyptian center from January 2015 through January 2016. Cases with elevated alanine aminotransferase more than 3-fold and/or alkaline phosphatase more than 2-fold the upper limit of normal value were prospectively recruited and followed for one year. Drug history, liver biopsy whenever feasible and application of Roussel Uclaf Causality
more » ... laf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) were the diagnostic prerequisites after exclusion of other etiologies of acute liver injury. In order of frequency, the incriminated drugs were: Diclofenac (31 cases, 41.3%), amoxicillin-clavulanate (14 cases, 18.7%), halothane toxicity (8 cases, 10.7%), ibuprofen (4 cases, 5.3%), Khat (3 cases, 4%), tramadol (3 cases, 4%), Sofosbuvir with ribavirin (2 cases, 2.7%), and acetylsalicylic acid (2 cases, 2.7%) with one offending drug in 93.3% of cases. Forty-four cases (58.7%) were males; while 56 cases (74.7%) had HCV related chronic liver disease. Thirty-two cases (42.7%) presented with pattern of hepatocellular injury, while 23 cases (30.7%) were with cholestasis, and 20 cases (20.7%) with a mixed hepatocellular/cholestatic injury. One case received a transplant (0.75%), 7 cases died (9.3%), 23 cases (30.6%) developed liver decompensation (hepatic encephalopathy and ascites), and 44 cases completely resolved (58.7%). In conclusion, Diclofenac is the commonest offender in DILI occurrence in an Egyptian cohort. Age and prothrombin concentration were the only predictors of unfavorable outcomes of DILI.
doi:10.1038/s41598-020-61872-9 pmid:32198411 fatcat:3xn4jvli3vcuzgkm7552wskk6i