Experimentelle Untersuchungen zum Erwerb eines impliziten musikalisch-syntaktischen Wissens
Two experiments were conducted to explore some aspects of the acquisition of tacit music-syntactic knowledge. In Experiment 1 , learning of an artificial transformational syntax for melody with an explicit instruction for rule induction was compared with incidental learning using two different orienting tasks. One orienting task was designed to focus attention on the musical elements that are objects of the rules of syntax. The task in the control condition just asked subjects (S) to listen
... s (S) to listen attentively to the melodies. Best performance in a test of acquired tacit syntactic knowledge was achieved in the explicit instruction condition without an orienting task. This result contradicts Reber' s (1976) suggestion that tacit knowledge is acquired best under conditions of incidental learning without conscious control of the cognitive processes involved in rule induction. Only when an attention demanding orienting task and explicit instruction to induce rules were combined, Reber's (1976) results were replicated with musical material. Experiment 2 was designed to further investigate the conditions under which some more learning of tacit music-syntactic knowledge would be observed. Orienting tasks asking for structural identification and those asking for connotative semantic labeling were compared, orthogonally varying the structural complexity of the tasks within each domain. Results show that the same amount of tacit knowledge as in the explicit instruction condition in Experiment 1 can be found only when the structural complexity of the orienting task demands focussing of attention to all the musical elements that are objects of the rules of syntax and when explicit structural coding of musical relationships is demanded instead of connotative labeling, despite the fact that in order to correctly label a melody connotatively in the experiment, the same musical relationships as in the structural orienting tasks had to be recognized implicitly.