LED Lighting Installations in Professional Stadiums: Energy Efficiency, Visual Comfort, and Requirements of 4K TV Broadcast
Nowadays, LED lighting technology reaches a higher Value of Energy Efficiency in Installations (VEEI) (W/m2*100 lux) than current luminaire lighting due to the number of lumens per watt that these are able to generate, as well as the directional nature of their emissions together with the adjustment capability through concentrator lenses with beam graduations that reach 5º. This achieves energy savings of up to 80%. Furthermore, also considering the substantial decrease in flickers, and that it
... ickers, and that it noticeably improves usage of ultra-slow-motion cameras and the fading of switching-on or rearm times upon failure, LED technology stands out as the main solution for illumination of professional sports facilities. This article describes the evolution of regulatory requirements that are being imposed by the governing institutions of sports (FIFA, UEFA, FIBA, etc.) and professional leagues (LaLiga, Euroliga, etc.) in order to guarantee their competence as high-quality television products. In addition, the trends in requirements and specifications regarding lighting equipment and its installation, which are intended to convert stadiums into optimized centers for the celebration and dissemination of mass events, are analyzed (settings, photometry, etc.), particularly those concerning horizontal, vertical, and camera illuminance, average and extreme uniformities, glare, reduction of intrusive light in bleachers, flickers, color rendering index (CRI), correlated color temperature (CCT), and start-up times.