A Dynamic Model of Contractor-Induced Delays in India
Journal of Construction in Developing Countries
To understand delays in the Indian construction context, an exploratory survey was conducted as a precursor to the development of simulation models. System Dynamics (SD) was used to visualise the pivotal feedback relations that cause delays to evolve mechanisms that reduce it. A community development construction project in India serves as the case for modelling. Findings of the study suggest that definite causal feedback relations exist among difficulties in financing the project, ineffective
... oject, ineffective planning and scheduling, poor communication and coordination by the contractor, conflict between the contractor and other stakeholders and use of inappropriate construction methods and construction delays. However, the modelling efforts reveal that the use of these best practices can reduce delay significantly: provision of adequate project finances and cash flow, effective planning and scheduling, adoption of appropriate construction methods and contingencies for rework in the schedule. BACKGROUND Several construction management scholars say the reasons for delays in projects could be classified under broad issues related to clients, contractors, design, construction, materials, equipment and management (Alaghbari et al., 2007; Assaf and Al-Hejji 2006; Chan and Kumaraswamy, 1997; Desai and Bhatt, 2013; Odeh and Battaineh, 2002) . However, out of these issues, contractor-related issues play a major role in causing delays in construction projects in developing countries (Doloi, 2009; Odeh and Battaineh, 2002; Sambasivan and Soon, 2007) . Scholars have also argued that contractors form important parts of construction projects. They are essentially responsible for the actual construction activities on project sites and as such, challenges faced by contractors could cause significant delays in projects (Hwang, Zhao and Tan, 2015; Hwang and Yang, 2014; Hwang and Leong, 2013; Ndekugri, Braimah and Gameson, 2008; Olawale and Sun, 2010) . According to recent studies in India by Aswathi and Thomas (2013) , contractors, rather than consultants and owners, were the most responsible party for the delays in construction projects. Similarly, according to Doloi, Sawhney and Iyer (2012) and , more than 50% of Indian projects have both cost and time overruns and the major reasons are contractor-related issues, such as an inefficient contractors' lack of commitment and contractors' improper planning.