An Eco-Friendly Approach to the Control of Pathogenic Microbes and Anopheles stephensi Malarial Vector Using Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles (Mg-NPs) Fabricated by Penicillium chrysogenum
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
The discovery of eco-friendly, rapid, and cost-effective compounds to control diseases caused by microbes and insects are the main challenges. Herein, the magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO-NPs) are successfully fabricated by harnessing the metabolites secreted by Penicillium chrysogenum. The fabricated MgO-NPs were characterized using UV-Vis, XRD, TEM, DLS, EDX, FT-IR, and XPS analyses. Data showed the successful formation of crystallographic, spherical, well-dispersed MgO-NPs with sizes of
... Ps with sizes of 7–40 nm at a maximum wavelength of 250 nm. The EDX analysis confirms the presence of Mg and O ions as the main components with weight percentages of 13.62% and 7.76%, respectively. The activity of MgO-NPs as an antimicrobial agent was investigated against pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans, and exhibited zone of inhibitions of 12.0 ± 0.0, 12.7 ± 0.9, 23.3 ± 0.8, 17.7 ± 1.6, and 14.7 ± 0.6 mm respectively, at 200 µg mL−1. The activity is decreased by decreasing the MgO-NPs concentration. The biogenic MgO-NPs exhibit high efficacy against different larvae instar and pupa of Anopheles stephensi, with LC50 values of 12.5–15.5 ppm for I–IV larvae instar and 16.5 ppm for the pupa. Additionally, 5 mg/cm2 of MgO-NPs showed the highest protection percentages against adults of Anopheles stephensi, with values of 100% for 150 min and 67.6% ± 1.4% for 210 min.