Review: The Encyclopedia of Social Reform [review-book]

K. B. Davis
1897 Journal of Political Economy  
Known as the Early Journal Content, this set of works include research articles, news, letters, and other writings published in more than 200 of the oldest leading academic journals. The works date from the mid--seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries. We encourage people to read and share the Early Journal Content openly and to tell others that this resource exists. People may post this content online or redistribute in any way for non--commercial purposes. Read more about Early Journal
more » ... out Early Journal Content at http://about.jstor.org/participate--jstor/individuals/early-journal--content. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not--for--profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. I34 JO URNAL OF POLITICAL ECONOM Y national and local finance. Its object is a systematic presentation of the facts and features of our commonwealth finance. The first fact that strikes the attention of the student of American commonwealth finance is the decay of the financial importance of the separate states. Out of an aggregate expenditure of 916 million dollars by national, state, and local government in the year i890, but 77 millions were made by the states. The main cause of this decay Dr. Bogart finds in the severe restrictions that have been imposed by our state constitutions, in the last three decades, on the borrowing and taxing powers of the legislatures, because of the abuses made of these powers in the period i820-i850. At the same time he does not fail to notice that these restrictions have, after all, only served to confirm the natural tendencies of American social and economic development to assign the more important spheres of public activity to national and local government. In the second chapter of the monograph, the financial procedure of the states in the appropriation of money and the voting of taxes is carefully and interestingly described. The third chapter is mainly a survey of the various kinds of taxation employed. The concluding chapter deals with state debts. Dr. Bogart has presented his material in an orderly and convenient form, with only such comment and discussion as were necessary to elucidate his subject. The work is well done and merits an English dress. A. C. M.
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