Role of livestock in microbiological contamination of water: Commonly the blame, but not always the source

T. A. McAllister, E. Topp
2012 Animal Frontiers  
Globally, an estimated 3.2% of human deaths are attributable to unsafe water, a problem particularly acute in rural areas in the developing world (World Health Organization, 2009). However, only a small fraction of these deaths are directly attributable to zoonotic diseases from livestock. Livestock manure can harbor a wide range of bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens (Table 1) . These microbial pathogens can be mobilized from land-applied manure to surface water, leach into groundwater,
more » ... into groundwater, or contaminate vegetable crops via irrigation (Figure 1 ). Pathogen mobility from intensive and extensive livestock operations is complex, and exposure of adjacent water sources occurs through multiple pathways.
doi:10.2527/af.2012-0039 fatcat:wttlymptm5dsvgimi32zajboge