Monitoring paddy productivity in North Korea employing geostationary satellite images integrated with GRAMI-rice model

Jong-min Yeom, Seungtaek Jeong, Gwanyong Jeong, Chi Tim Ng, Ravinesh C. Deo, Jonghan Ko
2018 Scientific Reports  
To meet the growing demands of staple crops with a strategy to develop amicable strategic measures that support efficient North Korean relief policies, it is a desirable task to accurately simulate the yield of paddy (Oryza sativa), an important Asian food commodity. We aim to address this with a gridbased crop simulation model integrated with satellite imagery that enables us to monitor the crop productivity of North Korea. Vegetation Indices (VIs), solar insolation, and air temperature data
more » ... e thus obtained from the Communication Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS), including the reanalysis data of the Korea Local Analysis and Prediction System (KLAPS). Paddy productivities for North Korea are projected based on the bidirectional reflectance distribution function-adjusted VIs and the solar insolation using the grid GRAMI-rice model. The model is calibrated on a 500-m grid paddy field in Cheorwon, and the model simulation performance accuracy is verified for Cheorwon and Paju, located at the borders of North Korea using four years of data from 2011 to 2014. Our results show that the paddy yields are reproduced reasonably accurately within a statistically significant range of accuracy, in comparison with observation data in Cheorwon (p = 0.183), Paju (p = 0.075), and NK (p = 0.101) according to a statistical t-test procedure. We advocate that incorporating a crop model with satellite images for crop yield simulations can be utilised as a reliable estimation technique for the monitoring of crop productivity, particularly in unapproachable, data-sparse regions not only in North Korea, but globally, where estimations of paddy productivity can assist in planning of agricultural activities that support regionally amicable food security strategies. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and also World Food Program (WFP), North Korea relies heavily on food imports, bi-lateral sources of food assistance, and multi-lateral international food aid, primarily from China and the Russian Federation 1 . The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is in East Asia and, it borders China, Russia, and South Korea. North Korea lies at high latitudes between 37°N and 43°N and at longitudes between 124°E and 131°E. It has an extended winter period and an only few frost-free days, with single cropping system that dominates the cultivation. Approximately 1.96 M ha (19.5%) of the total area of the country (12.0 M ha) is arable, with 0.32 M ha of perennial crops such as mulberry and fruit 2,3 . Out of the total gross domestic product (GDP) in North Korea, agriculture is the third most important economic factor supporting the nation, which comprises approximately 25.2% of the GDP 3 . Out of the main food crop products,
doi:10.1038/s41598-018-34550-0 fatcat:7cd2mve6ojf4zbwzyreqtuwuna