Reversion of Acid Phosphate
Journal of Industrial & Engineering Chemistry
In order to obtain a more correct idea of the importations it is suggested that the figures for these two gums be added and classed together. The present Tariff Act went into effect October 3, 1913, so that it was natural that large quantities of chicle should he imported before that time. The new act provided for a duty of 1.5 c. per pound on crude chicle and 2 0 c. per pound on refined chicle while balata was admitted free. This no doubt resulted in the importation of some chicle under the
... chicle under the name "Balata" and caused the drop in the chicle imports from 1914 to the year 1915. A t this point it is also interesting to note that exports of finished chewing gum to foreign countries have risen from $179,000 in 1914 to $574,400 in 1916. This has been shipped principally to England and Australia. At a valuation of $o.do per lb. this would represent approximately 718,000 lbs. of chewing gum or x;g,ooo lbs. of dry chicle. The amount of chicle imported, manufactured and consumed in the United States in 1916 was approximately 7,031,000 lbs., equal to over 28,124,000 lbs. of chewing gum. This represents a national consumption of over 844 million packages per annum. There seems t o be a n inclination of late among fertilizer and State control chemists t o do more investigating of phosphates, their properties, and their effect upon soils and growing crops. Where State laws call for water-soluble phosphoric acid, careful investigation and attention is necessary, particularly in order t h a t t h e different brands may not fall below guarantee. A recent article in THIS J O U R N A L b y Mr. E. W. hiagruder' recalled some work which was done by t h e writer in 1910, upon t h e reversion of acid phosphate by lime, a matter which has claimed t h e attention of chemists in t h e Southeastern states for t h e last two or three years. After having his attention called t o a fertilizer from San Francisco, which had evidently undergone reversion during transit t o t h e Hawaiian Islands, t h e writer undertook several experiments with different materials t o find t h e effect these had upon t h e acid phosphate of lime. T o 475 g. of acid phosphate in three separate bottles were added 2 5 g. lime (CaO), 2 5 g. unground coral sand and 2 5 e. unground brown guano, respectively; t h a t is, in each experiment there was added 5 per cent of t h e reverting agent t o t h e superphosphate, which we may consider a maximum amount t o use in practice. It should be explained t h a t the unground coral sand is carbonate of lime of 95 t o 98 per cent purity, and coarsely granular. The brown guano is a low-grade sandy phosphate from Laysan Island, formed b y t h e action of bird droppings upon coral sand with which it is intimately mixed. These mixtures were allowed t o stand 2 0 days, analyses being made of t h e water-soluble phosphoric acid from time t o time as other work permitted. The following table shows the water-soluble phosphoric acid found i n t h e mixtures at intervals after mixing.