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AbstractNext-generation sequencing (NGS) of marker genes such as 16S ribosomal RNA is widely used to survey microbial communities. The in-sample (alpha) diversity of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) is often summarized by metrics such as richness or entropy which are calculated from observed abundances, or by estimators such as Chao1 which extrapolate to unobserved OTUs. Most such measures are adopted from traditional biodiversity studies, where observational error can often be neglected.doi:10.1101/434977 fatcat:zieyuqe6tzh35hu5scqrshcakq