After Action Review Qualitative research on Yellow Fever outbreak Coordination, Surveillance & Reponses in Wolaita Zone of SNNPR Region, Ethiopia [post]

2020 unpublished
Coordinating outbreak investigations requires effective interagency communication. Important tasks include making the initial notifications, establishing roles and responsibilities for each jurisdiction, providing updates on the progress of the investigations, revising priorities for the investigation, and establishing the next steps. The major goal of surveillance activities is to identify and eliminate preventable causes of morbidity and mortality. Outbreak response basically entails
more » ... ly entails preparedness which helps to establish arrangements in advance to enable timely, effective and appropriate responses to specific potential hazardous events or emerging disaster situations that might threaten society/environment Objective: To review lessons learned from the October 2018 Wolayta Zone yellow fever outbreak management in SNNPR, Ethiopia. Methods: Qualitative research approach, with Thematic Analysis. Purposive sampling method was used. Data were collected through FGDs, in-depth interviews, observation and document reviews Results : Among the main findings of the review is the weakness of the surveillance to detect case; the surveillance system was not that much effective for early detection of viral hemorrhagic fevers and there was knowledge gap to detect in the existing. The Review found out further that preparedness plan was weak, failing to consider the outbreak for VRAM. However, it is worth-noting that the Review showed that despite late detection, a rapid response team was set up and was able to save the lives of many during the outbreak. The findings further showed there was good coordination among various stakeholders at different levels and with satisfying sharing of roles and responsibilities. Conclusion: Based on the major findings, it may be concluded that the surveillance system was weak to detect yellow fever outbreak occurrence in Wolaita Zone. A major gap is therefore the inability to include the case to the IDSR weekly report. Once the case was confirmed, the response to the crisis was fairly commendable. Even though there was a confusion on identifying the first case, after the confirmation of the first case, the case management went as per the standard guideline and SOPs, helping save so many lives through availing the service free of charge 4 The importance of experiential learning is highlighted when the situation is getting more multifaceted as in the yellow fever (Carroll, 1995) . One method used to establish and promote mindfulness and safety in an organization is the after-action review (Allen et al., 2010 ). An After-Action Review (AAR), is a discussion of an event that enables health professionals and colleagues with similar or shared interests to discover what happened, why it happened, and how to sustain strengths and improve on weaknesses for future incidents (USAID, 2006). Researchers emphasize the importance of post-incident discussion (i.e., AARs) that highlights strengths, weaknesses, and near failures and describe the findings as a key feature of safety cultures for future actions (Mearns et al., 2013) . Thus, AAR is a qualitative review of actions taken to react to an emergency as a means of identifying best practices, gaps and lessons learned. Following an emergency response to a public health event, an AAR seeks to classify what worked well or not and how these practices can be maintained, enhanced, institutionalized and shared with relevant stakeholders, it works by bringing together a team to discuss a task, event, activity or project, in an open and honest environment. AARs can become a key aspect of the internal system of learning and motivation and should be part of all emergency management programmers [WHO, 2018]. Recently, yellow fever suspected cases were notified on 21 August 2018 in Wolayita Zone, Ethiopia and total of 35 cases with 10 deaths were reported. After confirmation of yellow fever, a reactive mass vaccination campaign was conducted from 13-20 October 2018 in six identified kebeles for 31,565 high risk populations. Following epidemiological, virological and entomological field investigation evidences, the Ethiopian Ministry of Health and international community decided to vaccinate 1,335,865 populations dwelling in nine woredas and institutions; seven from Wolaita and two from Gamo Gofa Zones. The institutions included Universities, colleges, prisons and other camps. This ring campaign was conducted from 16-22 November 2018 plus two additional days for mop up. Experts from partner organizations (WHO, UNICEF, MSF, IRC, AMREF and CDC) had supported government institutions on field to accomplish the vaccination effectively. The campaign was officially 5 finalized on 24 November 2018. Following the outbreak and its response, After Action Review (AAR) was done with the objective of reviewing lessons learned from yellow fever outbreak management in the wake of an outbreak in Offa District in Wolayta Zone of SNNPR; identifying best practices, gaps, lessons learned and how these practices can be maintained, improved, institutionalized and shared with relevant stakeholders following an emergency response to a public health event. The AAR was undertaken employing qualitative methodology over an extended period of fieldwork involving collection of data through interviews, discussions, observations and archival reviews. The Review yielded important insights and the findings of this review are presented and discussed in this report. Before going to this, we first present in some detail a brief review literature on the benefits and scope of AAR followed by the objectives and methodology employed in this study. Method Study setting and population This AAR was been conducted in two woredas of Wolaita Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia. Purposive Sampling Method was employed, commensurate with qualitative research approach. A total of 310,454 households were counted in this Zone, which results in an average of 4.84 persons to a household, and 297,981 housing units found at a distance of 157 Km and 338 Km from Hawasa City and Addis Ababa respectively. It has twelve rural woredas and three Town administrations. There are 324 rural and 28 urban 368 kebeles in the zone there are five governmental hospital two NGO and private hospital, 68 health centers, 152 private clinics, and 353 health posts in the zone. Study Design The present study employed Qualitative research approach, with Thematic Analysis. Purposive sampling method was used. Data were collected through face-to-face FGDs, in-depth interviews, observation and document reviews and Also Additional Field note were also taken. A total of eleven FGDs were conducted: one FGD per affected woreda for RRT members; one for health professionals comprising clinicians, pharmacist/pharmacy technicians and laboratory technologist/technicians and one for selected community members. In addition, there were one each FGD for Zonal, regional and YA,YF,WM,MA,MM,NY,SH,ZD and BW have different experience in conducting qualitative research and their credentials were PhD, Assistance professor, MD, MPH and MSc were been participated in all part of the work, including data collection tools development, participated in each FGD and KII as facilitator and interviewer facilitated fieldwork logistics, analyzed and interpreted the data; and the other MN,SH,DS,AT,SK were been assisted/contributed in translation, transcription and analysis the Corresponding Correspondence to Yonas Assefa Tufa (Master in General Public Health). (
doi:10.21203/rs.2.22265/v1 fatcat:bg7lljjor5h33eme7lmsqlcrk4