Volcanic and Solar Forcing of the Tropical Pacific over the Past 1000 Years

Michael E. Mann, Mark A. Cane, Stephen E. Zebiak, Amy Clement
2005 Journal of Climate  
We investigate the response of El Niño to natural radiative forcing changes over the past 1000 years based on numerical experiments employing the Zebiak-Cane (Zebiak and Cane, 1987) model of the tropical Pacific coupled ocean-atmosphere system. Previously published empirical results (Adams et al, 2003) demonstrating a statistically significant tendency towards El Niño conditions in response to past volcanic radiative forcing are reproduced in the model experiments. A combination of responses to
more » ... ion of responses to past changes in volcanic and solar radiative forcing closely reproduces changes in the mean state and interannual variability in El Niño in past centuries recorded from fossil corals. Our experiments suggest that the dynamics of El Niño may have played an important role in the response of the global climate to past changes in radiative forcing.
doi:10.1175/jcli-3276.1 fatcat:fdvjfkbycvfn5dg74j4kfr3tzq