MECHANISM OF SOIL REPRODUCTION AND PRESERVATION IN THE SYSTEM OF ORGANIC FARMING
Agriculture and Forestry
The problem of monitoring the condition of soils in Ukraine is not given due attention. This applies to the scientific field, where due to insufficient funding, full-fledged research is not conducted on the distribution, causes and ways to eliminate degradation. The same applies to the legislature and the executive, where no effective control measures have been developed. In general, the society does not create an atmosphere of maximum assistance for the preservation of soil cover as an
... sable national heritage. The media and educational institutions are indifferent to this problem. That is why these issues need immediate solution, namely, the development of an effective mechanism for reproduction and conservation of soils, taking into account the organic system of agriculture, which in recent years has attracted considerable interest not only scientists but also practitioners. The purpose of the article is to reveal the essence of the system of organic farming in terms of ensuring balanced land use. The materials of the article are based on the study of the positive impact of organic agriculture on the reproduction and preservation of soils. The research methodology was based on a systematic approach and a dialectical method of understanding the organic principles of land use in agricultural production, taking into account retrospective analysis, monographic method, methods of synthesis and analysis. The essence of the system of organic farming from the point of view of ensuring balanced land use is revealed. The dynamics of land distribution in Ukraine by land for 2010-2017, which is characterized by an extremely high rate of agricultural development, which is significantly exceeds the ecologically reasonable limits are shown as well as the distribution of soil areas of Ukraine by humus content. The most important resource for soil humus reproduction remains organic fertilizers, plant residues, by-products, green manures, etc., the application of which has a positive effect on the agrochemical, physical and water-air properties of soils. The structure of mineral and organic fertilizers application in 1990-2018 is given. The main problems of agricultural land use are highlighted. Under modern conditions of agricultural production and existing land use systems, it is impossible to achieve even a simple reproduction of soil fertility without significant improvement of mechanisms for controlling their use by the state, and also the introduction of more effective, mostly economic, mechanisms to support soil protection measures. International experience shows that new information technologies, in addition to traditional research methods, will provide effective control of land use and soil protection at different spatial levels, from the state to a specific field. The mechanism of preservation and reproduction of soil fertility in the system of organic agriculture is proposed for use by agricultural commodity producers, which includes a set of measures aimed at restoring stocks of organic substances and improving agrophysical properties of soil. No less important is the state support in solving problematic issues, it is recommended to supplement the developed mechanism with such components as: legal, scientific and technical, economic, financial, scientific and educational supports. Organic agriculture through balanced land use increases the reliability and sustainability of modern agricultural systems. All the proposed methods and techniques of organic farming improve the physical and chemical properties of the soil, namely: - increase nutrient reserves; - improve absorption capacity, moisture capacity and moisture permeability; - enriched with microflora; - improve the biological activity and physical state of the soil. Key words: organic cropping, soil, plowlands, structure of sown areas, reproduction and preservation of soils, organic agriculture.