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Determining the vulnerabilities in power transmission systems requires two distinct steps because most large blackouts have two distinct parts, the triggers/initiating event followed by the cascading failure. Finding the important triggers for large blackouts is the first and standard step. Next, the cascading part of the extreme event (which can be long or short) is critically dependent on the "state" of the system; how heavily the lines are loaded, how much generation margin exists, and wheredoi:10.1109/hicss.2012.208 dblp:conf/hicss/CarrerasND12 fatcat:wbdiytkzizf77git7ob3ud6gqa